The station in Błonie-Topola is one of the oldest experimental stations in Poland. It is located in the gmina Łęczyca (Łódzkie voivodeship, Poland), between the towns of Błonie and Topola Królewska. The premises of the station are located on the border of Kotlina Kolska, Równina Kutnowska and Równina Łowicko-Błońska. On the southern side, it borders with the Warsaw-Berlin Valley, where (in the lowest part) there are river beds of the Ner River (to the west) and the Bzura River (to the east) and wetlands dominated by peat soils.
The relief is usually flat. The fields are slightly wavy in configuration with a slope towards lower peat soils, partially occupied by meadows. The soil cover of the arable land is made up of brown soils proper and leached, black degraded soils and podzolic soils and, in the case of meadows, mainly peat and partially mucky soils. The quality of arable land is high, dominated mainly by wheat complexes (1 and 2), predominantly (91%) class II and IIIa, while permanent grassland is of medium quality (class III).
The climate of the area where the station is located has intermediate features between the marine climate of Western Europe and the terrestrial climate of Eastern Europe with considerable variability and variety of weather types. The research indicates that AES Błonie-Topola operates in an area with quite high frequency of droughts and definitely negative water balance during the growing season of plants. Due to the persistent water deficit, the station is planned to be equipped with an irrigation system. In addition, a photovoltaic installation was added, which will reduce electricity costs. This will improve the financial performance of the station, which has been burdened with significant costs so far.
AES Błonie-Topola is an livestock-free farm running two types of production. The structure of agricultural land is dominated by arable land (72%) and it is complemented by permanent meadows. Currently, the structure of sowing on arable land is dominated by cereals, mainly winter wheat (about 60%). Moreover, sugar beet (about 30%) and maize for grain are grown. Mineral fertilization is at the level of about 260 kg NPK∙ha-1, and winter wheat grain yields are 6.2 t∙ha-1, while sugar beet root yields are 62 t∙ha-1. In recent years, the percentage of cereals in the gross commercial production value was 44% on average, and sugar beet 40%.
For many years the station has been conducting organizational and economic research covering all cultivated fields with the use of technological cards of plant production and economic analyses of business activity. Moreover, works are carried out within the framework of agricultural drought monitoring and the LCAgri project (4 implementations of low-emission practices).